Account by Richard Hakluyt. Dated 1585. Inducements to the Liking of the Voyage Intended Towards Virginia in 40 and 42 degrees of Latitude. pp. 180-193 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

[List of 31 reasons for making the voyage to New England: selected] 1. The glory of God by planting of religion among those infidels. 2. The increase of the force of the Christians. Possibilitie of inlarging of the dominions of the Queenes most excellent Maiestie, and consequently of her honour, reuenues, and of her power by this enterprise … 5. A great possibilitie of further discoueries of other regions from the North part of the same land by sea, and of vnspeakable honor and benefit that may rise vpn the same, by the trades to ensue in Iapan, China, and Cathay. 6. By return thence, this realme [England] shall receiue…Wines, Hops, Salt…cheape …. 21. The knowen abundance of Fresh fish in the riuers, and the knowen plentie of Fish on the sea coast there, may assure vs of sufficient victuall in spight of the peo;le, if we will vse salt and industrie. 22. The knowen plentie and varietie and varietie of Flesh, of diuers kinds of beasts at land there, may seeme to say to vs, that we may cheaply victuall our nauies to England for our returnes, which benefit euery where is not found of merchants … 24. If this realme [England] shall abound too much with youth [too many unemployed English young men] in the mines there of Golde … of Siluer, Copper, Yron, etc. may b an imployment to the benefit of this realme; in tilling of the rich soile there for graine, and in planting of Vines there for Wine; or dressing of those Vinew which grow there naturally in great abundance, Oliues for Oile; Orenge trees, Limons, Figs and Almonds for fruit; Oad, Saffron, and Madder for Diers; Hoppes for Brewers; Hempe, Flaxe; and in many such other things, by implioment of the soile, our people void of sufficient trades, may be honestly imploied, that els may become hurtfull at home … 26. The number of raw Hides there of diuers kindes of beasts, if we shall possess some Island there, or settle on the firme [mainland] may presently imploy many of our idle people … 28. If mines of white or gray marble, Iet, or other rich stone be found there, our idle people may be imployed n the mines of the same … 29. Sugar-canes may be planted aswell as they are now in the South of Spaine, and besides the imploiment of our idle people, we may receiue the commodity cheaper, and not inrich infidels or our doubtful friends, of whom now we receiue that commoditie … 31. This land that we purpose to direct our course to, lying in part in the 40 degree of latitude…may by our diligence yeeld vnto vs besides Wines and Oiles and Sugars, Orenges, Limons, Figs, Resings [raisins], Almonds, Pomegranates, Rice, Raw-silks such as come from Granada, and diuers commodities for Diers, as Anile and Cochenillio [cochineal]…The ends [purposes] of this voyage [thus] are … 1. To plant Christian religion, 2. To trafficke, 3 To conquer. Or, to doe all three. (pp. 181-186).

To plant Christian religion without conquest, will bee hard. Trafficke easily followeth conquest; conquest is not easie. Trafficke without conquest seemeth possible, and not vneasie. What is to be done, is the question. If the people be content to liue naked, and to content themselues with few things of meere necessity, then trafficke is not. So then in vaine seemeth our voyage, vnlesse this nature may be altered, as by conquest and other good meanes it may be, but not on a sudden…If the people in the Inland [on the other hand] be clothed, and desire to liue in the abundance of all such things as Europe doth, and haue at home all the same in plentie, yet we can not haue trafficke with them, by meane they want not any thing that we can yeeld them (p. 186).

The soile and climate first is to be considered … For Wine .. .in setting your Vine-plants this yeere, you may haue Wine within three yeeres. And it may be that the wilde Vines growing there already [in America], by orderly pruning and dressing atyhour first arriuall, may come to profit in shorter time. And planting your Oliue trees this yeere, you may haue Oile within three yeeres … But how the nasturall people of the countrey may be made skilfull to plant Vines, and to know the vse, or to set Oliue trees, and to know the making of Oile, and withall to vse both the trades, that is a matter of small consideration: but to conquer a country or prouince in climate and soile of Italie, Spaine, or the Islands from whence we receiue our Wines and Oiles, and to man it, to plant it, and to keept it, and to continue the making of Wines and Oiles able to serue England, were a matter of great importance (p. 187).

Cuts of vnrooted [vines] placed in tubbes of earth shipped at the next voyage, to be planted n Virginia, may begin Vineyards, and Bring Wines out of hand. Prouision great of wilde Oliue trees may be made [from London] … then … caried [to America] to increase great store of stocks to graffe the best Oliue on … Sugar-canes, if you can not procure them from the Spanish Idlans, yet may you by your Barberie merchants [pirates!] procure them … Figge trees of many good kinds may be had [from England] and they in that climate [in America] will yeeld noble fruit, and feed your people presently … To the infinite naturall increas of Hogs [they may be fed] roots, acornes, etc. without spoiling your corne, would be of great effect to feed the multitude continually imployed in labour [in America] … and the same cheaply bred and salted, and barrelled there and brought home [to England], will be well solde for a good merchandise; and the barrels after, will serue for our home Herring-fishing … Receiuing the saluage women and their children of both sexes by courtesie into your protection, and imploying the English women and the others in making of Linnen, you shal raise a woonderfull trade of benefit … But if seeking reunge on euery iniurie of the Saluages we seeke blood and raise war, [then] our Vines, our Oliues, our Figge trees, our Sugar-canes, our Orenges and Limons, Corne, CAttell, etc. will be destroyed, and trade of merchandise in all things ouerthrowen; and so the English nation there planted and to be planted, shalbe rooted out with sword and hunger (pp. 189-190),

Sorts of men which are to be passed in this voyage [a list of 31 kinds of men]. 1. Men skilfull in all Minerall causes. 2. Men skilful in all kinde of drugges. 3. Fishermen … 4. Salt-makers … 5. Husbandmen … 6. Vineyardmen …7 . Men bred in the Shroffe in South Spain, for discerning how Oliue trees may be planted there. 8. Others, for planting of Orenge trees, Figge trees, Limnon trees, and Almond trees … 9. Gardeners, to prooue the seuerall soiles of the Islands, and of our setling places, to see how the same may serue for all herbs and roots for our victualling; since by rough seas sometimes we may want fish, and since we may want flesh to victuall vs, by the malice of the naturall people there: and gardeners for planting of our common trees of fruit, as Peares, Apples, Plummes, Peaches, Medlers, Apricoes [Apricots], Quinces for conserues, etc. … 10. Lime-makers … 11. Masons, Carpenters etcl for building there. 12. Brick-makers and Tile-makers. 13. Men cunning in the art of fortification … 14. Choice Spade-men, to trench cunningly, and to raise bulwarks and rampiers of earth for defence and offence. 15. Spade-makers … 16. Smithes … 17. Men that vse to breake Ash trees for pike-staues … 18. Others, that finish vp the same so rough hewd, such as in London are to be had. 19. Coopers … 20 Forgers of pikes heads and of arrow heads … 21. Fletchers, to renew arrowes, since archerie preuaileth much against vnarmed people: and gunpowder may soone perish, by setting on fire. 22. Bowyers, also to make bowes there for need. 23. Makers of oares … 24. Shipwrights … 25. Turners, to turne targets of Elme and tough wood, for vse against the darts and arrowes of Saluages. 26. Such also as haue knowledge to make targets of horne. 27. Such also as can make armor of hides vpn moulds … 28. Tanners, to tanne hides of Buffes, Oxen … 29. White Tawyers [makers of alum-dressed leather] … 30. Men skilfull in burning of Sope ashes, and in making of Pitch, and Tarre, and Rozen. 31. A skilfull painter is also to be caried with you, which the Spaniards vsed commonly in all their discoueries to bring the descriptions of all beasts, birds, fishes, trees, townes, etc.  (pp. 191-193).


Account by Edward Hayes. Dated 1592 or 1593. A Treatise, conteining important inducements for the planting in these parts, and finding a passage that way to the South sea and China. pp. 167-180 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

The voiage which we intend, is to plant Christian people and religion vpon the Northwest countries of America [sic. Northeast America is meant], in places temperat and well agreeing with our constitution … These lands were neuer yet actually possessed by any Christian prince or people, yet often intended to be by the French nation, which long sithence had inhabited there…notwithstanding the same are the righytfull inheritance of her Maiestie, being first discouered by our nation in the time of King Henrie the seuenth, vnder the conduct of Iohn Cabot and his sonnes: by which title of first discouery, the kings of Portugall and Spaine doe holde and enioy their ample and rich kingdomes in their Indies East and West; and also lately planted in part by the Colonies sent thither by the honourable knight, Sir Walter Ralegh…The course vnto these countreys…can..be performed commonly in 30 or 35 daies (pp. 168-169).

These lands be faire and pleasant, resembling France … The soile is exceeding strong, by reason it was neuer manured; and will be therefore most fit to beare at first, Rape-seeds, Hempe, Flax, and whatsoeuer else requireth such strong soile (p. 169).

The ground bringeth forth, without industrie, Pease, Roses, Grapes, Hempe, besides other plants, fruits, herbs and flowers, whose pleasant view and delectable smelles doe demonstrate sufficiently the fertility and sweetness of that soile and aire. Beasts of many kinds; some of the bigness of an Oxe, whose hides make good buffe: Deere, both red and of other sorts in aboundance…Fowlers both of the water and land, infinite store and varietie:…Partriges in abundance, which are verie great, and easily taken … Fish, namely Cods … Whales and Seales in great abundance. Oiles of them are rich commodities for England, whereof we now make Soape, besides many other vses … Tunneys, Anchoues, Bonits, Salmons, Lobsters, Oisters hauing Pearle, and infinit other sorts of fish, which are more plentifull vpon those Northwest coasts of America, than in any parts of the knowen world. Salt is reported to be found there, which els may be made there, to serue sufficiently for all fishing. So as the commodities there to be raised both of the sea and land (after that we haue planted our people skilfull and industrous) will be Fish, Whale and Seale oiles…Grapes, and Raisens and Wines, Corne [wheat], Rape-seeds and oils … [for want of these commodities] doth decay our townes and ports of England, and causeth the realme to swarme full with poore and idle people (pp. 170-172).

No nation of Christendom is so fit for this action as England, by reason of our superfluous people … And after [the land is settled and] we be once 200 men strong, victualled and fortified, we cannot be remooued by as many thousands … The Saluages neither in this attempt shall hurt vs, they being simple, naked and vnarmed, destitute of edge-tooles or weapons; whereby they are vnable either to defend themselues or to offend vs: neither is it our intent to prouoke, but to cherish and win them vnto Christianitie by faire meanes; yet not to trust them too far (pp. 174-175).

So … the onely difficultie now, is in our first preparation to transport some few people at the beginning; the charges [costs] whereof shall be defraied by our first returne, of fish and some commodities of Sassafras, Hides, Skinnes and Furres, which we shall also haue by trading with the Saluages. The proofe of which commodities shall incourage our merchants to venture largely in the next [voyage] … It may also seeme a matter of great consequence for the good and securitie of England; that out of these Northerly regions we shall be able to furnish this realme of all maner of prouisions for our nauies … [we would hope too there would be] … a conuenient passage and trade into the South Sea, vnder temperate regions part by riuers, and some part ouer land, in the continent of America … vnto Cathay, China, and those passing rich countreys, lying in the East parts of the world … [but that] the same shall neuer be made knowen, vnless we plant first; whereby we shall learne as much by inquisition of the naturall inhabitants, as by our owne nauigations … [I will not discuss here] the discoueries of Iaques Noel … [or those of] Iaques Cartier [who found] the riuer of S. Laurence passable on the other side … [linked to] a mighty lake [modern Lake Ontario] … the end whereof was vnknowen…For this we know alreadie, that great riuers haue beene discouered a thousand England miles into that continent of America; namely, that of S., Laurence or Canada … Therefore foure Staple-places [forts] must be erected, when the most short and passable way is found…[after all this is discovered and done then] euery foure moneths may be returned into England the greatest riches of Cathay, China, Iapan, and the rest which will be Spices, Drugges, Muske, Pearle, Stones, Gold, Siluer, Silks, Clothes of gold, and all manner of precious things, which shall recompense the time and labour of their transportation and carriage (pp. 175-180).


Account of Gabriel Archer. Dated 1602. The Relation of Captain Gosnols Voyage to the North Part of Virginia, Begunne the Sixe and Twentieth of March, Anno 42. Elizabethae Reginae 1602 and Deliuered by Gabriel Archer, a Gentleman of the Said Voyage. pp. 114-138 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

The tenth [of May[ we rounded … the Westernmost end of Saint John Iland [Nova Scotia, vpon this banke we saw sculls of fish in great numbers (p. 115).

Wee perceiued them to bee Sauages … They paint their bodies, which are strong and well proportioned .. the fifteenth day [of May] we had againe sight of the Land … Neere this Cape we came to Anchor in fifteen fadome, where wee tooke great store of Cod-fish, for which we altered the name, and called if Cape Cod. Here wee saw sculls of Herrings, Mackerels and other small fish in great abundance … The Captaine went here ashoare and found the ground to be full of Pease, Strawberries, Hurtberries, etc. as then vnripe (pp. 117-118).

The twentieth … we there killed Pengwins [Great Auks] and saw many sculls of fish … we saw a disinhibited Iland which so afterwards ppeard vnto vs.: we bore with it, and named if Marthaes Vineyard … the place [is] most pleasant … [on the 22nd] we went ashoare, and found it full of Woods, Vines, Gooseberie bushes, Hurt beries, Raspices, Eglentine, etc. Heere we had Cranes, Hearnes, Shoulers Geese [Shoveller Duck; Spatula clypeata] and diuers other Birds which there at that time vpon the Cliffes being sandie with sme Rockie stones, did breed and had young. In this place we saw Deere, here we rode in eight fathome neere the shoare, where wee tooke great store of Cod, as before at Cape Cod, but much better (pp. 124-125).

The three and twentieth wee weyed and towards night came to Anchor at the Northwest part of this Iland, where the next morning offered vnto vs fast running thirteene Sauages … They brought Tobacco, Deeer skins and some sodden fish (p. 125).

The fiue and twentieth, it was that we came from Gosnolls Hope. The six and twentieth, we trimmed and fitted vp our Shallop. The seuen and twentieth, there came vnto vs an Indian and two women; the one we supposed to be his Wife, the other his Daughter, both cleane and straite bodied … they would not admit of any immodest touch … [in the Elizabeths isle: modern Cuttyhunk and Nashawena] … where … the Indians from the Mayne doe oftentimes resort for fishing of Crabs … [there are] Oakes, Ashes, Beech, Wal-nut, Weech-hasle, Sassafrag, and Cedars, with diuers other [trees and plants] of vnknowne names. The Rubbish is wild Peaze, young Sassafrag, Cherie trees, Vines, Eglentine, Gooseberie bushes, Hawthorne, Honisuckles, with others of like qualiatie. The herbs and Roots are Strawberies,Raspis, Ground Nuts, Alexander [lovage: Ligusticum scothicum], Surrin [sorrel], Tansie [Tanacetum vulgare] without count. Touching the fertilitie of the soyle by our owne experience made, we found it to be excellent for sowing sme English pulse [and?] it spowted out in one fortnight almost halfe a foot (pp. 126-128).

The nine and twentieth, we labored in getting of Sassafrage, rubbishing [removing undergrowth and clearing stumps] our little Fort or islet … the powder of Sassafrage in twelve houres cured one of our Company that had taken a great Surfet by eating the bellies of Dog-fish, a very delicious meate (p. 130).

The one and thirtieth, Captain Gosnoll [went ashore] and immediately there presented vnto him men women and children, who with all courteous kindnesse entertained him, giuing him certaine skinnes of wilde beasts, which may be rich Furres, Tobacco, Turtles, Hempe, artificial Strings coloured, Chaines, and such like things as at the instant they had about them. These are a faire conditioned people [Narragansett Indians?] (pp. 130-131).

On all the Sea coast along we found Mussell shells … This Maine is the goodliest Continent that ever we saw, promising more by farre then we any way did expect … The first of June, we employed our selues in getting Sassafrage, and the building of our Fort (pp. 131-132)

The seuenth [of June] … the Seignior [Chief] came againe with all his troupe as before, and continued with vs the most part of the day, we going to dinner about no one, they sate with vs and did ete of our Bacleure [Bacalo: sun-dried cod] and Mustard, drank of our Beere, the Mustard nipping them in their noses they could not indure: it was a sport to behold their faces made being bitten therewith … In the time of Dinner … they fell a fresh to roasting of Crabs, Red Herrings [shad], which were esceeding great, ground Nuts [Apios tuberos?], etc. as before. Our Dinner ended, the Seignior first tooke leaue and departed, next all the rest sauing foure that stayed and went into the Wood to helpe vs digge Sassafrage (pp. 134-135).

The eleuenth [of June] … I commanded foure of my companie to seeke out for Cragges, Lobsters, Turtles, etc. for sustaining vs till the ships returne … [I told them to keep together for safety] … One of these … was assaulted by foure Indians, who with Arrowes did shoot and hurt one of the two in his side … The twelfth .. the want of our Captaine, that promised to return .. stroke vs in a dumpish terror, for that hee performed not the same in the space of almost three days. In the meane wee sustained our selues with Alexander and Sorrell pottage, Ground-nuts and Tobacco, which gave nature a reason able content … [the Captain returned] … [mutiny discussed] … The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth we spent in getting Sassafrage. The seuenteenth, we set sayle … came to anchor at Marthaes Vineyard … where we went ashore, and had yioung Cranes, Herneshowes, and Geese, which now were growne to pretie bigness. The eighteenth we set sayle and bore for England … The three and twentieth of July we came to anchor before Exmouth (pp. 136-138


Account by John Brereton. Dated 1602. A Briefe and True Relation of the Discoverie of the North Part of Virginia; being a most pleasant, fruitfull and commodious soile: made this present yeere 1602, By Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, Captain Bartholomew Gilbert, and diuers other gentlemen their associats, by the permission of the honourable knight, Sir Walter Ralegh, etc. Written by M. Iohn Brereton one of the voyage. Whereunto is annexed a treatise, of M. Edward Hayes, conteining imnportant inducements for the planting in those parts, and finding a passage that way to the South sea, and China. With diuers instructions of special moment newly added in this second impresson. London: George Bishop, 1602. pp. 142-165 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

Friday the fourteenth of May … wee made the land, being full of faire trees … And standing faire alongst by the shore … were eight Indians … These people are of tall stature, broad and grim visage, of a blacke swart complexion (pp. 144-145).

[Captain] Bartholmew Gosnold, myself, and three others, went ashore [at Barnstable Harbor?] … we espied an Indian, a young man, of proper stature … after some familiaritie with him, we left him at the sea side, and returned to our ship where in fiue or sixe hours absence, we had pestered our ship so with a Cod fish, that we thres numbers of them ouer-boord again … thers is vpon this coast, better fishing, and in a great plenty, as in Newfound-land for the sculls of Mackerell, herrings, Cod, and other fish, that we daily saw as we went and came from the shore, were woonderfull (pp. 146-147).

At length we were come amongst many faire Islands … [we] went ashore [on Marthas’ vineyard?] and [found] an olde piece of a weare of the Indians, to catch fish … the chiefest trees of this Island, are Beeches and Cedars … [there are] Strawberries [Fragaria virginiana], red and white, as sweet and much bigger than ours in England: Rasberies [Rubus strigosus], Gooseberries [Ribes sp.], Hurtleberies [perhaps huckleberries: Gaylussacia spp, or possibly blueberries: Vaccinium spp.], and such an incredible store of Vines, as well in the wooddie part of the island, where they run vpon euery tree … that we could not goe for treading vpon them … Here are also in this Island, great store of Deere [Oedicoelus virginiana], which we saw, and other beasts, as appeared by their tracks; as also diuers fowles, as Cranes, Hernshawes, Bitters, Geese, mallards, Teales, and other fowles, in great plenty; also, great store of Pease [bech-pea: lathyrus maritimus], which grow in certeine plots all the Island ouer. On the North side of this Island we found many huge bones and ribbes of Whles … [people lived here] yet wee found no townes … although we saw manie Indians, which are tall big boned men … they gaue vs of their fish readie boiled … whereof we did eat, and judged them to be fresh water fish: they gaue vs also fo their Tabacco, which they drinke green [NOTE: use of the verb used in the sense “to drink” as in Arabic!], but dried into powder, very strong and pleasant, and much better than any I haue tasted in England … Wee gaue vnto them certeine trifels as kniues, points, and such like, which they much esteemed. From hence we went to another Island (pp. 148-150.

[Elizabeths island] There are many plaine places of grasse, abundance of Strawberies and other berries before mentioned. In mid May we did sowe in this Island [for a trial planting] in sundry places, Wheat, Barley, oats, and Pease, which in fourteen daies were sprung vp nine inches and more. The soile is fat and lustie … This Island is full of high timbered Oakes … Cedars … Beech, Elme, hollie, Walnut trees in aboundance, the fruit as bigge as ours, as appeared by those we found vnder the trees, which had lien all the yeere vngathered; Haslenut trees, Cherry trees [choke cherry: Prunus Virginia or black cherry: Prunus serotina] … [with] fruit at the end … like a cluster of Grapes, forty or fifty in a bunch; Sassafras trees great plenty all the Island ouer, a tree of high price and profit; also diuers other fruit trees, some of them with strange barkes, of an Orange colour … on the Northwest side of this Island, neere to the sea side, is a standing Lake of fresh water … this Lake is full of small Tortoises, and exceedingly frequented with all sorts of fowles before rehearsed, which breed, some low on the banks, and others on low trees bout this Lake in great aboundance, whose yong ones of all sorts we tooke and eat at our pleasure: but all these fowles are much bigger than ours in England. Als, in euery island, and almost in euery part of euery island, are great store of Ground nuts [Apios tuberosa], fortie together on a string, some of them as bigge as hennes eggs, they grow not two inches under ground: the which nuts we found to be as good as Potatoes [NOTE: this is a significant statement given that only sweet potatoes were available in England at this time; so had the author Brereton previously seen Solanum tuterosum perhaps in southern Europe?]. Also, diuers sorts of shell-fish, as Scalops, Muscles, Cockles, Lobsters, Crabs, Oisters, and Wilks, exceeding good and very great (pp. 150-152).

We met and traded with Indians] we became very good friends, and [we] sent for meat aboord our shallop, and gaue them such meats as we had then readie dressed, whereof they misliked nothing but our mustard, whereat they made many a sowre face … the rest of the day we spent in trading with them for Furres, which are Beauers, luzernes, Marterns, Otters, Wild-cat skinnes … black Foxes, Conie skinnes … Deere skinnes … Seale skinnes … they [the Indians] haue large drinking cups made like sculles, and other thinne plates of copper … We had also of their Flaxer, wherewith they make many strings and cords … six or seuen of them remained with vs behind, bearing vs company euery day into the woods, and helpt vs to cut and carie our Sassafras … These people … [were] well conditioned … afor shape of bodie … I thinke they excel all the people of America; of stature much higher then we … their garments are of Deere skins … Their women … were but lowe of stature [and] fat (pp. 154-158).

The holsomness and termperature of this Climate, doth not onely argue this people to be answerable to this description, but also of a perfect constitution of body active, strong, healthfull, and very wittie [intelligent] … For the agreeing of this Climate with vs … that we found our health and strength all the while we remained there, so to renew and increase, as notwithstanding our diet and lodging was noe of the best, yet not one of our company (God be thanked) felt the least grudging or inclination to any disease or sickness, but were much fatter and in better health than when we went out of England … [we] determined to return for England (p. 159).

A briefe Note of such commodities as we saw in the country, notwithstanding our small time of stay. Trees: Sassafras trees [Sassafras albidum], Cedar; Cypres; Oakes; Walnut trees great store [white walnut or butternut: Juglans cinera; black walnut: Juglans nigra]; Elmes; Beech; Hollie; Haslenut trees [Coryulus americana; possibly Carya ovate or Carya ovalis]; Cherry trees [beach plum: Prunus maritime; choke cherry: Prunus virginiana; black cherry: Prunus serotina; pin-cherry: Prunus pennsylvanica; service berry: Amelanchier canadensis] (p. 160).

Fowles: Eagles; Hernshawes; Cranes; Bitters; Mallards; Teales; Geese; Pengwins; Ospreis and Hawks; Crowes; Rauvns; Mewes; Doues; Sea-pies; Blacke-birds with carnation wings (p. 160).

Beastes: Deere in great store, very great and large [white-tailed deer: Dama virginiana borealis]; Beares; Luzernes; blacke foxes; Beauers; Ottes; Wilde-Cats, very large and great; Dogs like Foxes, blacke and sharpe nosed; Conies [marsh rabbit: Sylvilagus palustris palustris; eastern cottontail: Sylvilagus floridanus hitchensi; New England cottontail: Sylvilagus transitionalis] (p. 160).

Fruits, Plants, and Herbs: Tabacco, excellent sweet and strong [Nicotiana rustica]; Vines in more plenty than in France [fox grape: Vitis labrusca; summer grape Vitis aestvalis]; Ground-nuts, good meat, and also medicinable [Apios america]; Strawberries [Fragaria virginia and Fragaria canadensis]; Raspeberries [genus Rubus – includes rasperries, blackberries, dewberries, and cloudberries. NOTE: Rubus idaeus was the cultivated form in Europe and was introduced later to America; the species native to America closely resembled it and was related to Rubus strigosus; most common blackberry in the northeast is Rubus allegheniensis]; Gooseberries [wild gooseberry: Ribes cynosbati; the author of the passage also used the term to include currants, such as wild currant: Ribes triste  and black currant: Ribes americanum]; Hurtleberries [low sweet blueberry: Vaccinium augustifolium; blue huckleberry: Vaccinium vacillans]; Pease growing naturally [beach pea: Lathyrus japonicas; Lathyrus maritimus; possibly Lathyrus palustris]; Flaxe; Iris Florentina, whereof apothecaries make sweet balles; Sorrell; and many other herbes whereth they make sallets (p. 160).

Fishes, Whales, Tortoises [snapping turtle: Chelydra serpentine serpentine; box turtle: Terrapene carolina carolina; loggerhead turtle: Caretta caretta caretta], both on land and sea. Seales [harbor seal: Phoca vitulina; harp seal: Phoca groenlandica; hooded seal: Phoca cristata]; Cods [Gadus calarias]; Mackerell [mackerel: Scomber scombrus; club mackerel: Pneumatophorus colias]; Breames [NOTE: no bream are found off New England; author probably meant porgie: Stenotomus versicolor; or sheepshead: Archosargus probatocephalus]; Herrings [herring: Clupea harengus; alewife: Pomolonus pseudoharengus; blueback or summer herring: Pomolonus aestivalis; shad: Alosa sapidissima]; Thornbacke or thorny skate: Rais radiate]; Hakes [silver hake: Merluccius bilinearis; white hake: Urophycis tensus; squirrel hake: Urophycis chuss]; Rockefish [sea bass or rockfish? Rosefish: Sebastes marinus; sea bass: Centropristes striatus]; Doggefish [spiny dogfish: Squalus acanthias]; Lobstars [lobster: Homarus americanus] Crabbes [rock crab: Cancer irroratus; green crag: Carcinides maenas; spider crab: Libinia emerginata; blue crag: Callinectes sapidus]; Muscles [blue mussel: Mytilus  edulus; northern norse mussel: Modlicus modlicus; hooked mussel: Brachicontes recurves]; Wilks [common northern whelk: Buccinum undatum; channeled whelk; Busycon canaliculatum]; Cockles [Morton’s egg cockle: Laevicardium mortoni; Iceland cockle: Cinocardium cilatum]; Scallops [bay scallop: Aequipectum irradians; Atlantic deepsea scallop: Placopecten magellanicus]; oisters [oyster: Crassostre virginica] (p. 161).

Snakes foure food in length, and sixe inches about, which the Indians eat for daintie meate, the skinnes whereof they use for girdles (p. 161).


Account of Martin Pringe. Dated 1603. A Voyage set out from the Citie of Bristoll at the charge of the chiefest Merchants and Inhabitants of the said Citie with a small Ship and a Barke for the discouerie of the North part of Virginia, in the yeere 1603. Vnder the command of me Martin Pringe. pp. 214-228 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

[The city] prepared a small ship called the Speed-well … [with] thirtie men and Boyes … with a Bark called the Discouerer … plentifully victualed for eight monethes, and furnished with slight Merchandizes thought fit to trade with the people of the Couintry [Indians], as Hats of diuers colours, greene, blue and yellow, apparel of coarse Kersie and Canuasse readie made, Stockings and Shoes, Sawes, Pick-axes, Spades and Souels, Axes, hatchets, Hookes, Kniues, Sizzers, Hammers, Nailes, Chissels, Fish-hookes, Bels, Beades, Bugles, Looking-glasses, Thimbles, Pinnes, Needles, Threed, and such like (pp. 215-216).

We fell with a multidude of small Ilands on the North Coast of Virginia, in the latitude of 43 degrees the [left blank] of June … Heere wee found an excellent fishing for Cods … and withal we saw good and Rockie ground to drie them vpon … We sayled to the South-west end of these Ilands … One of them we named Foxe Iland, because we found those kind of beasts thereon … At length coming to the Mayne in the latitude of 43 degrees and an halfe, we ranged … to the Southwest … In all these places we found no people, but signes of fires where they had beene … we beheld very goodly Groues and Woods replenished with tall Okes, Beeches, Pine-trees, Firre-trees, hasels, Wich-hasels and Malles. We saw herde also sundry sorts of Bests, as Stags, Deere, Beares, Wolues, Foxes, Lusernes, and Dogges with sharp noses. But … no Sassafras … [we landed at Cape Cod and found] sufficient quantitie of Sassafras … During our abode on shore, the people of the Countrey came to our men sometimes ten, twentie, fortie or threescore, and at one time one hundred and twentie at once [a band of Massachusett or Nauset Indians]. We vsed them kindly and gaue them diuers sorts of our meanest Merchandize. They did eat Pease and Beanes with our men. Their owne victuals were most of fish. We had a youth in our company that could play vpon a Gitterne [gittern: guitar-like instrument], in whose homely Musicke they tooke great delight, and would giue him many things, as Tobacco … Snakes skinnes of sixe foot long, which they vse for Girdles, Fawnes skinnes, and such like (pp. 216-220).

We carried with us from Bristoll two excellent Mastiues of whome the Indians were more afraid, then of twentie of our men … And when we would be rid of the Sauages company wee would let loose the Mastiues, and suddenly with out-cryes they would flee away … They seeme to bee somewhat jealous of their women … The men are of stature somewhat taller than our ordinary people, strong, swift, well proportioned, and giuen to trecherie (pp. 221-222).

Passing vp a Riuer we saw certain Cottages together, abandoned by the Sauages, and not farre off we beheld their Gardens and one among the rest an Acre of ground, and in the same was sowne Tobacco, Pompions [field pumpkin: Cucurtiba pepo; gourd: Lagnerarica ciceria], Cowcumbers [immature pumpkins and gourds] and such like; and some of the people had Maize or Indian Wheat among them. In the fields we found wild Pease, Strawberries, very faire and bigge, Goose-berries, Raspices, Hurts, and other wild fruits (pp. 223-224).

Having spent three Weekes vpon the Coast before we came to this place where we meant to stay and take in our lading, according to our instructions given vs in charge before our setting forth, we pared and digged vp the Earth with shouels, and sowed Wheate, Barley, oates, Pease, and sundry sorts of Garden Seeds, which for the time of our abode there, being about seven Weeks, although they were late sowne, came vp very well, giuing certaine testimonie of the goodness of the Cloimate and of the Soyle. And it seemeth that Oade ‘woad: ISatis tinctoria], Hempe [Cannabis sativa], Flaxe [Linum isitatissum], Rape-seed Brassica nepus] and such like which require a rich and fat ground, would prosper excellently in these parts (p. 224).

The Trees of the Country yeeldeth Sassafras a plant of souereigne vertue for the French Poxe, and as some of late haue learnedly written good against the Plague and many other maladies; Vines, Cedars, Oakes, Ashes, Beeches, Birch trees, Cherie trees, bearing fruit whereof wee did eate, Hasels, Wich-hasels…Walnut-trees, Maples, holy to make Bird-lime with , and a kind of tree bearing a fruit like a small red Peare-plum with a crowne or knop on the top [service berry or shad bush?: Amelanchier canadensis]…We found also low trees bearing faire Cheries. There were likewise a white kind of Plums [beach plum: Prunus maritima], which were not growne to their perfect ripenesse (pp. 224-225).

The Beastes here are Stags, fallaow Deere in abundance, Beares, Wolues, Foxes, Lusernes [lynx], and…Tygres [mountain lion or puma: Felis concolor], Porcupines, and Dogges with sharpe and long noses [NOTE: could be dogs or raccoons?] … The most vsuall Fowles are Eagles, Vultures, Hawkes, Cranes, Herons, Crowes, Gulls, and great store of other Riuer and Sea-fowles … the Sea [is] replenished with great abundance of excellent fish, as Cods sufficient to lade many ships … Seales to make Oile withall, Mullets [common mullet: Mugil cephalus], Turbuts [Pring’s turbot, Rosier’s plaice, sole, possibly sand flounder: Lophopsetta maculata, possibly halibut: Hipoglossus hippoglossus], Mackerels, Herrings, Crabs, Lobsters, Creuises [fresh-water crayfish: Cambarus bartonii or littoral shrimp: Palaemonetes vulgaris], and Muscles with ragged pearles in them (blue mussel: Mytilus edulis; northern horse mussel: Modiolus modiolus] (p. 225-226).


Account by James Rosier. Dated 1605. A Trve Relation of the most prosperous voyage made this present yeere 1605 by Captain George Waymouth, in the Discouery of the land of Virginia: Where he discouered 60 miles vp a most excellent Riuer; together with a most fertile land. Written by Iames Rosier, a Gentleman Employed in the Voyage. London: George Bishop, 1605. pp. 250-311 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

(May 13th, 1605; made land latitude 41 degrees 20 minutes) Heere we found great store of excellent Cod fish, and saw many Whales … [we landed at Monhegan Island] … This Iland is woody, growen with Firre, Birch, Oke and Beech … On the verge grow Gooseberries [prickly gooseberry: Ribes cynosbata; R. hirtellum?], Strawberries [Fragaria virginiana], Wild pease [Lathyrus maritima], and Wild-rose bushes [Rosa nitida, R. palustris, and R. carolina] … While we were at shore, our men aboord with a few hooks got aboue thirty grat Cods and Hadocks, which gaue vs a taste of the great plenty of fish (pp. 258-260).

[Elsewhere along the Main coast] we found … egge shells bigger than goose egges [from the grat auk: Plautus impennis], fish bones, and … the bones of some beast .. .[the next day] … our boat went out about a mile from our ship, and in small time with two or three hooks was finished sufficiently for our whole Company three dayes, with great Cod, Haddocke, and Thornebacke [spiny skate: Raia radiata]. And towards night we drew with a small net of twenty fathoms very nigh the shore: we got about thirty very good and great Lobsters [first reference to lobster in Maine: Homerus americanus], many Rockfish [sea bass or cunners: Tautogobabrus adspersus], some Plaise [flounders or dabs: Lophopsetta maculata] and other small fishes called Lumpes [Cyclopterus lumpus] verie pleasant to the taste: and we generally obserued, that all the fish, of what kind soeuer we tooke, were well fed, fat and sweet in taste … [we] digged a plot of ground, wherein, amongst some garden seeds, we sowed peaze and barley, which in sixteen dayes grew eight inches aboue ground (pp. 262-264).

The profits and fruits which are naturally on these Ilands [off the coast of Main] are these: All along the shore and some space within where the wood hindereth not, brow plentifully Rasberries, Gooseberries, Strawberries, Roses, Currants, Wild-vines [northern fox grape: Vitis labrusca and V. riparia] Angelica [seacoast angelica: Angelica lucida]. Within the Ilands growe wood of sundry sorts, some very great, and all tall: Birch, Beech, Ash, Maple, Spruce, Cherry-tree, Yew, Oke…Firre-tree which issueth Turpentine … Heere our men found abundance of great muscels [common mussel: Mytilus edulis] among the rocks (pp. 264-266).

[Regarding Indians: eastern Abenaki] The shape of their body is very proportionable, they are … not very tal nor big, but in stature like to vs … Their clothing is Beauers skins, or Deares skinns…They seemed all very ciuill and merrie … Their Canoas are made without any iron, of the bark of a birch tree … the next morning very early, [they came] we easily then enticed [them] into our ship, and vnder the decke: where we gaue them porke, fish, bread and pease, all which they did eat: and this I noted, they would eat nothing raw, either fish or flesh (pp. 268-270).

[Another time Indians came aboard] We victualled them, and gaue them aqua vitae [brandy], which they tasted, but would by no meanes drinke; our beueridge they liked well, we gaue them Sugr Candy, which after they had tasted they liked and desired more, and raisons which were giuen them; and some of euery thing they would reserue to carry to their company. Wherefore we pittying their being in the raine, and therefore not able to get themselues victuall (as we thought) we gaue them bread and fish (p. 272).

Our Captaine had two of [the Indians] at supper with vs in his cabbin to see their demeanure, and had them in presence at seruice: who behaued themselues very ciuilly, neither laughing nor talking all the time, and at supper fed not like men of rude education, neither would they eat or drinke more than seemed to content nature; they desired pease to carry a shore to their women, which we gaue them, with fish and bread, and lent them pewter dishes, which they carefully brought again [returned to us] (p. 275).

[Regarding Indian women] They were very well fauored in proportion of countenance … low of stature, and fat … they had two little male children of a yeere and half old [with them] … very fat and of good countenances, which they loue tenderly (p. 276).

[They] brought vs Tabacco, which we tooke with them in their pipes, which were made of earth, very strong, blacke, and short, containing a great quantity: some Tabacco they gaue vnto our Captaine, and some to me, in very ciuill kind manner. We requited them with bread and peaze, which they caried to their Company on shore, seeming very thankefull … I caried some few biskets, to try if they would exchange for them [something], seeing they so well liked to eat them … [they] brought vs to sit downe by their firke … They filled their Tabacco pipe, which was then the short claw of a Lobster … and we dranke of their excellent Tabacco … when we were ready to come away, they shewed vs great cups made very wittily of barke, in forme almost square, full of a red berry about the bigness of a bullis [wild plum of southern England: this is likely the service berry: Amelanchier canadensis], which they did eat, and gaue vs by handfulls; of which (though I liked not the taste) yet I kept some, because I would by no meanes but accept their kindnesse. They shewed me likewise a great piece of fish, whereof I tasted, and it was fat like Porpoise [possibly harbor porpoise: Phocaena phocaena]; and another kinde of great scaly fish, broiled on the coales, much like white Salmon, which the Frenchmen call Aloza [shad: Alosa sapidissima], for these they would haue had bread; which I refused, because in maner of exchange, I would alwayes make the greatest esteeme I could of our commodities whatsoeuer … Then they shewed me foure young Goslings [canadian geese: Branta canadensis], for which they required foure biskets, but I offered them two; which they tooke and were well content (p. 279-281).

Tuesday, the fourth of June, our men tooke Cod and Hadocke with hooks by our ship side, and Lobsters very great: which before we had not tried…we went on shore … [met Indians: they came on board] … we gaue them a Canne [pot?] of pease and bread, which they carried to the shore to eat. But one of them brought back our Canne … I went to traffique with them … [and took with me] a platter of pease, which meat they loued … [there was a dispute] … we shipped [NOTE: the kidnapped the natives and brought on board] fiue Saluages, two Canoas, with all their bowes and arrowes (pp. 283-285).

[They sailed on along the coast] The soile is blacke, bearing sundry hearbs, grasse, and strawberries bigger than ours in England … We … see in some places where fallow Deere and Hares had beene, and by the rooting of ground we supposed wilde Hogs had ranged there, but we could descrie no beast, beause our noise still chased them from vs (p. 294).

[Up river] we saw great store of fish, some great, leaping aboue water, which we iudged to be Salmons [Salmo salar? possibly alewife: Pomolobus pseudoharengus or P. aestivalis; possibly shad: Alosa sapidissima] (p. 296).

[On leaving this land we] perceiued … a fish banke [St. Georges Bank south of Penobscot Bay]; which for our farewell from the land) it pleased God in continuance of his blessings, to giue vs knowledge of: the abundant profit whereof should be alone sufficient cause to draw men [here] againe … [possibly] a more profitable returne … than from New-found-land: the fish [here] being so much greater, better fed, and abundant with traine; of which some they desired, and did bring into England to bestow among their friends, and to testifie the true report…we kept our course directly for England [and arrived] Sunday the 14[th] of July (p. 301).

Further, I haue thought fit here to adde some things worthy to be regarded, which we haue obserued from the Saluages since we tooke them [NOTE: they were kidnapped and taken to England] … we intended them no harme, they haue neuer since seemed discontented with vs, but very tractable, louing … and vnderstanding … We haue brought them to vnderstand some English … They [have showen us] the maner how they make bread of their Indian wheat [NOTE: not possible since Indians in this geographical location did not grow maize], and how they make butter and cheese of the milke they haue of the Rain-Deere and Fallo-Deere, which they haue tame as we haue Cowes [NOTE: this is impossible: the Indians did not domesticate deer] … [they told us] their manner of killing the Whale … [how] they diuide the spoile, and guie to euery man a share, which pieces to distributed they hang vp about their houses for prouision: and when they boile them, they blow off the fat, and put to their peaze, maiz and other pulse [these Indians had no cultivated maize, peas, or other vegetables], which they eat (pp. 301-304).


Account by Samuel Purchas. Dated 1614. North Virginia Voyages 1606-1608, from Samuel Purchas, Pilgrimage, in Second (1614) and Subsequent Editions. pp. 347-351 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

[Regarding the northern part of Virginia, or Mawooshen] Captain Thomas Hanham sayled to the Riuer of Sagadahoc [in] 1606. He relateth of their beasts, doggs like woules, of colours blacke, white, red, grisled: red Deere, and a beast bigger, called the Mus [elk: Cervus canadensis] etc. of their fowles fishes, trees (pp. 347-348).

[A settlement was founded in 1607 along the River Sagadahoc] … They found this coast of [northern] Virginia full of Ilands, but safe … [there] They found the Countrey stored with Grapes white and red, good Hops, Onions, Garlike, Okes, Walnuts, the soil good (p. 349).

The [Indians] seemed affected with our mens deuotions, and would say, King Iames is a good King, his God a good God, and Tanto naught. So they call an euill spirit which haunts them euery Moone, and makes them worship him for feare. Hee commanded them not to dwell neere, or come among the English, threatening to kill some and inflict sickness on others, beginning with two of their … children [NOTE: this passage suggests that the children could have died from three causes: poison, disease contracted from English, or from natural diseases of the area] … In the Riuer of Tamescot they found Oysters nine inches in length [Crassostrea virginica] (pp. 349-350).


Account by William Strachey.  Dated 1610-1612. The Narrative of the North Virginia Voyage and Colony, 1607-1608. William Strachey, The Historie of Trauaile into Virginia Britania. pp. 397-415 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

[We made land in the Latitude of 43 and 2/3 minutes] … here they fisht some 3 howres and tooke nere 200 of Cod, very great Fish … [then sailed for shore] fownd Gooseberries, Strawberries, Raspices, Hurts, and all the Island full of hugh high trees of divers sortes (pp. 400-401).

These Islandes are all overgrowne, with woodes, as oake, walnut, pine, Spruse-trees, hasel nutes, sarsaperilla, and hurtes in aboundance … [at the entrance of the Sachadehoc river Indians approached and entered the fort] the President gaue them meat and drinck and vsed them exceedingly kyndly, two or three howres they remayned there … Captain Gilbert accompanied with 19 others [explored] the River of Sachadehoc [and found an Island where there was] great store of grapes both red and white, good hoppes, and also Chiballs [wild onion] and garlick (pp. 408-409).


Account by Robert Davies. Dated 1607. The Relation of a Voyage unto New-England. The Journal of Robert Davis (or Davies) of the Voyage to North Virginia in 1607 and of the Founding of Fort St. George on the Kennebeck River, 1 June-26 September 1607. pp. 416-441 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

We made land at 44 degrees and 14/2 and Indians approached … we three into their boat] som biskett but for all this they would nott Com aboard of vs … [we] rowed to the shore and landed on this Illand … ful of heigh and myghty trees of Sundry Sortes. Hear we allso found aboundance of gusberyes, strawberyes, rasberyes and whortes [whortleberry or hurtleberry: applied to all species of Vaccinum including blueberry]. So we retorned and Cam aboard … [later] att Lo watter in on hower kild near 50 great Lopsters you shall See them Whear they ly in shold Watter nott past a yeard deep and with a great hooke made faste to a staffe you shall hitch them vp … I have nott Seen the lyke in Ingland [NOTE: this is the earliest account of Nova Scotia lobster] (pp. 419-420).


Account by three [captive] Indians, Nahanda (Tahanedo), Manido (Maneddo), and Saffacomoit (Sassacomoit or Assacomoit). Dated c. 1607. Eastern Abenaki captives describe their country of Mawooshen [compiled under the direction of Sir Ferdinando Gorges]. The description of the Country of Mawooshen [Eastern Abenaki territory from Mount Desert Island to the Saco River in Maine], in the yeere 1602. pp. 470-476 (in) The English New England Voyages 1602-1608. Edited by D.B. Quinn and A.M. Quinn. The Hakluyt Society. Series Two, Number 161. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1983.

Mawooshen is a Countrey lying to the North and by East of Virginia, betweene the degrees of 43 and 45 … It is bordered on the East side with a Countrey, the people whereof they call Tarrantines [Micmac]: on the West with Epistoman [not identified], on the North with a gread Wood called Senaglecounc, and on the South with the mayne Ocean Sea, and many Islands. In Mawooshen…there are nine Riuers .. The fourth Riuer Apanawapeske [enters Penobscot Bay] … To the south-west foure daies iourney, there is another excellent Riuer … two daies journey [beyond] … there is a great fall, at the head whereof there is a Lake…[the lake] abound[s] with fresh water fish of all sorts, as also with diuers sorts of Creatures, as Otters [Lutra canadensis], Beeues [beaver: Castor canadensis], sweete Rats [muskrat: Ondatra zibethica] and such like (pp. 470-473).