Account by Arthur Barlow. Date c. 1584. Discourse of the First Voyage. pp. 91-116 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to Illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

The first voyage made to the coastes of America, with two barkes, wherein were Captaines Master Philip Amadas, and Master Arthur Barlowe, who discouered part of the Countrey, now called Virginia, Anno 1584…The 27th day of Aprill, in the yeere of our redemption, 1584, we departed the west of England (pp. 91-92).

Wee viewed the lande about vs [may have been the Carolina Bankes in the vicinity of Nags Head or further north], being whereas we first landed, very sandie, and lowe towards the water side, but so full of grapes [Vitis aestivalis], as the very beating, and surve of the Sea ouerflowed them, of which we founde such plentie, as well there, as in all places else, both on the sande, and on the egreene soile on the hils, as in the plaines, as well on euery little shrubbe, as also climing towardes the toppes of the high Cedars [possibly Swamp Cypress], that I thinke in all the world the like aboundance is not to be found (p. 94-95).

This Island had many goodly woodes, full of Deere, Conies [rabbits], Hares [NOTE: at this time there were no hares in America: perhaps marsh rabbit is meant, Lepus palustris], and Fowle, euen in the middest of Summer, in incredible aboundance …We remained by the side of this Island two whole daies, before we sawe any people of the Countrey: the third daye we espied one small boate rowing towards vs, hauing in it three persons … [we] … rowed to the lande … we brought him aboord the shippes, and gaue him a shirt, a hatte, and some other things and made him taste of our wine, and our meate, which he liked very well: and after hauing viewed both barkes, he departed (pp. 96-98).

A daye or two after … we fell to trading with [the Indians], exchanging some thinges that we had for Chammoys [dressed deer-skins], Buffe [beef: i.e. bison meat], and Deere skinnes: when we shewed him all our packet of merchandize, of all things that he saw, a bright tinne dishe most pleased him … They offered vs very good exchange for our hatchets, and axes, and for kniues, and would haue giuen any thing for swordes [NOTE: the Indians here already familiar with use of European weapons probably from shipwrecked Spaniards?]: but we would not depart with any. After two or three daies, the Kings brother came aboord the shippes, and drinke wine, and ate of our meate, and of our bread, and liked esxceedingly thereof (pp. 100-101).

[The king’s brother] He was very iust of his promise … Hee sent vs euery daye a brase or two of fatte Buckes, Conies, Hares, Fishe, the best of the worlde. Hee sent vs diuers kindes of fruites, Melons [melons did not grow in Virginia at this time], Walnuts, Cucumbers, Gourdes, Pease, and diuers rootes, and fruites very excellent good, and of their Countrey corne, which is very white, faire, and well tasted, and groweth three times in fiue moneths: in Maye they sowe, in Iuly they reape, in Iune they sowe, in August they reape: in Iuly they sow, in September they reape: onely they cast the corne into the ground, breaking a little of the soft turfe with a woodden mattocke, or pickeaxe [NOTE: this is the earliest description of maize-cultivation in Virginia, in 1584]: our selues prooued the soile, and put some of our Pease into the ground, and in tenne daies they were of foureteene ynches high: they haue also Beanes very faire, of diuers colours, and wonderfully plentie: some growing naturally, and some in their gardens, and so haue they both wheat and oates [NOTE: oat is a northern European food: if not previously introduced, then what cereal is meant?] … The soile is the most plentifull, sweete, fruitfull, and wholsome of all the worlde (pp. 105-106).

[Wife of Grangyno, the king’s brother dried our wet clothes] in the best manner shee coulde, making great haste to dresse some meate for vs to eate … shee brought vs into the inner roome [of the house], where shee set on the boord standing along the house, some wheate like furmentie [maize boiled in water and seasoned], sodden [i.e. stewed] Venison, and roasted, fishe sodden, boyled, and roasted, Melons [pumpkins] rawe, and sodden, rootes of diuers kindes, and diuers fruites: their drinke is commonly water, but while the grape lasteth, they drinke wine, and for want of caskes to keepe it [there is no other account of deliberate fermented beverages in eastern North America] all the yeere after, they drinke water, but it is sodden with Ginger in it, and blacke Sinamon, and sometimes Sassaphras, and diuers other wholesome, and medicinable hearbes and trees. We were entertained with all loue, and kindness, and with as much bountie, after their manner, as they could possibly deuise. Wee found the people most gentle, louing, and faithfull, void of all guile, and treason … The people onely care to defend them selues from the cold, in their short winter, and to feede themselues with such meate as the soile affoordeth: their meate is very well sodden, and they make broth very sweete, and sauorie: their vessels are earthen pots, very large, white, and sweete: their dishes are woodden platters of sweete timber: within the place where they feede, was their lodging … While we were at meate, there came in at the gates, two or three men with their bowes, and arrowes, from hunting … we departed in the euening (pp. 107-109).

Beyond this Island, called Croonoake [Roanoak], are many Islands, very plentifull of fruites … [it is a place of] fertile ground, replenished with goodly Cedars, and diuers other sweete woods, full of Currans [perhaps small grapes?], of flaxe, and many other notable commodities … [adjacent islands have] Deere, Conies, Hares, and diuers beastes, and about them the goodliest and best fishe in the world, and in great aboundance (pp. 114-115).


Account by an anonymnous member of the crew of the ship Tiger. Dated 1585. The Voyage Made by Sir Richard Greenuile, for Sir Walter Ralegh, to Virginia, in the Yeere, 1585. pp. 178-193 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to Illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

The 19]th] day of Maye, in the yeere [1584], wee departed from Plymmouth, our fleete consisting of the number of seuen sailes, to wit, the Tyger … the Roe Bucke … the Lyon … the Elizabeth … the Dorothie … [and] 2 small Pinnasses … The 1[st] day of Iune we ankered at Isabella, in the North side of Hispaniola … the Spanyardes in recompense of our curtesie, caused a great heard of white buls, and kyne, to be grought together from the Mounteines [that we hunted] wherein all three of the beasts were killed, whereof one tooke the sea, and there was slaine with a musket … the next day [we barganed] for diuerse of their commodities, as horses, mares, kyne, buls, goates, swine, sheepe, bul hydes, sugar [sugar cane], ginger, pearle, tabacco, and such like commodities of the Island … [we departed] … the 8[th] day we ankred at a small Iland to take Seales [West Indian Monk Seal: Monachus tropicalis] … we arriued and landed in the Isle of Caycos, in which Island we searched for salt pondes … the 20[th day] we [saw] the mayne of Florida … [passed what now is called Cape Fear] … the 24[th] we came to anker in a harbor where we caught in one tyde so much fishe as woulde haue yelded vs xx [20] pounds in London: this was our first landing in Florida [at Beauford Harbour] … The 3[rd of July] we sent word of our ariuing at Wococon, to Wingino at Roanocke (pp. 178-189).


Account of Ralph Lane. Dated August 12th, 1585. Letter to Sir Francis Walsingham. pp. 199-204 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to Illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

Soo as thys Porte at ye poynte of ye lande beyng fortefyed with a skonse, yt ys not to bee enterdde by all ye force yet Spayne canne make … The clymate ys soo whoollesom, yeate somewhat tendying to heate, As yet wee haue not had one sycke synce wee enterdde into ye countrey; but sundry yet came sycke, are recouerd of longe dyseases especially of Reumes [NOTE: this is a general, collective term for colds, cattarrh, bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatic pains] … And for myne owne parte doo find my selfe better contented to lyue with fysshe for my dayely foode, and water for my dayelye dryncke … [we are] beyng in a vaste Countrey yet vnmanuredde, thoughe most apte for ytk, that hee wyll commaunde even ye Ravennes to feede us (pp. 202-204).


Account by Ralph Lane to Richard Hakluyt the Elder. Dated September 3rd, 1585. An Extract of Master Lanes Letter, to Master Richard Hakluyt Esquire, and Another Gentleman of the Middle Temple, from Virginia. pp. 207-210 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to Illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

We haue discouered the maine [land] to bee the goodliest soile vnder the cope of heauen, so abounding with sweete trees, that bring such sundry rich and most pleasant gummes, grapes of such greatnes, yet wild, as France, Spaine nor Italy hath no greater, so many sortes of Apothecarie drugs [NOTE: none specifically are identified in this account], such seuerall kindes of flaxe, and one kind like silke, the same gathered of a grasse, as common there as grasse is here. And now within these few dayes we haue found here a Guinie wheate [maize], whose eare yeeldeth corne for bread, 400 upon one eare, and the Cane maketh very good and perfest suger, also Terra Samia, otherwise Terra sigillata [NOTE: types of medicinal clays/earths]. Besides that, it is the goodliest and most pleasing territorie of the world for the soile is of an huge vnknowen greatness, and very wel peopled and towned … the climate so wholesome, that we haue not had one sicke, since we touched land here … alreadie we find…all sortes [of] oiles … frankensence, currans, sugers, and such like, these parts do abound with ye growth of them all, but being Sauages that possess the land, they know no vse of the same … The people [here are] naturally most a curteous and very desirous to haue clothes (pp. 207-209).


Account by Ralph Lane. Dated to the period shortly after July 27th,1586. An Account of the Particularities of the Imployments of the English Men Left in Virginia by Sir Richard Greeneuill vnder the Charge of Master Ralfe Lane Generall of the Ame, from the 17[th] of August, 1585 vntill the 18[th] of Iune 1586 at which time They Departed the Countrie: Sent and Directed to Sir Walter Ralegh. pp. 255-294 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to Illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

Our discouery [exploration] … hath bene extended from the Island of Roanoak … into the South, into the North, into the Northwest, and into the West … the Territorie and soyle of the Chesepians [Chesepiook] was for pleasantnes of seate [location], for temperature of Climate, for fertilitie of soyle, and for the commoditie of the Sea, besides multitude of beares (being an excellent good victual, with the great woods of Sassafras, and Wall nut trees) is not to be excelled by any other whatsoeuer (pp. 256-257).

There be sundry Kings, whom they call Weroances … the King of [Choanoke] is called Menatonon, a man impotent in his lims, but otherwise for a Sauage, a very grasue and wise man … When I had him prisoner with me, for two dayes … he gaue mee more vnderstanding and light of the Countrey then I had receiued by all the searches and saluages that before I or any of my companie had had conference with (pp. 257-259).

[English become low on food] I found my whole companie ready [to move on] …f or they were nowe come to their dogs porredge, that they had bespoken for themselues, if that befell them which did, and I before did mistrust we should hardly escape [from hunger] … we lodged vpon an Islande [Sans Soucie Island], where wee had nothing in the worlde to eate but pottage of sassafras leaues, the like whereof for a meate was neuer vsed before as I thinke. The broad sownde [known today as Albemarle Sound] wee had to passe, the next day all fresh and fasting … This was upon Easter eue [Saturday, April 2nd, 1586], which was fasted very trulie. Vpon Easter day … we were at Chipanum, wher all the Sauages that wee had left there were fled, but their wears did yeelde vs some fish, as God was pleased not utterly to suffer vs to be lost … The next morning we arriued at our home Roanoake (p. 272).

[This country is] the most sweete, and healthfullest climate, and therewithall the most fertile soyle, being manured in the world: and then will Sassafras, and many other rootes and gummes there found make good Marchandise and lading for shipping … prouided…there be found out a better harborough…which must bee to the Northward (p. 273).

Ensenore a sauage father to Pemisapan being the only frend to our nation that we had amongst them gaue vs a certaine plot of grounde for our selues to sowe. All which put vs in marueilous comfort, if we could passe from Aprill, vntill the beginning of Iuly … that then a newe supplie out of Englande or else our owne store would well inough maintayne vs: All our feare [i.e. fare = food] was of the two moneths betwixt, in which meane space, if the Sauages should not helpe vs with Cassada [Cassaui: food from Arrowarum or golden-club], and Chyna [food prepared from woodly smilax root], and that our weares should fayle vs … wee might very well starue, notwithstanding the growing corne, like the staruing horse in the stable, with the growing grasse, as the prouerbe is … [but Ensenore] our friende dyed (pp. 275-280).

Famine grewe so extreeme among vs, our weares fayling vs of fish, that I was enforced to send [people out for food] also I sent euery weeke 16 or 20 of the rest of the companie to the mayne [shore] ouer against vs, to liue of Cassada and oysters (p. 283).


Account known as the Primrose Journal of Drake’s Voyage to Florida and Virginia. Dated 1586. The Discourse and Description of the Voyage of Sir Francis Drake and Master Captain Frobisher, Set Forward the 14[th] Daie of September, 1585. pp. 303-308 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to Illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

The 23[rd] of Maie wee put of into the sea for the Cape of florida and the xxv[th] daie wee gott sight theof and sealinge alonge the coast, the 27[th] daie wee fell with a Towne called Saint Awgustine … The 30[th] daie after wee had taken the spoile of this Towne wee set it on fire … This Towne Saint Awgustine standeth in florydaie [where is] as goodlie a soyle as maie bee, with so greate abundance [of] sweete woodes etc. as is woonderfull with goodlie meadowes, [and] store of fisshe Oysters and mussels with deere and goodlie feelds of Corne after there manner. There was abowte 250 howses in this Towne, but wee left not one of the standinge. Wee fownde 40 pipes of meale in this place and muche barley, but wee fownde neither wine nor Oyle nor anie other victual to make accompte of … The wilde people at first comminge of our men died verie fast and saide amongest themselues, It was the Inglisshe God that made them die so faste [NOTE: perhaps infections from measles or smallpox?] (pp. 303-306).

Then we sailed alonge the coast of this lande vntill wee Came to the place where those men did lyve that Sir Walter Raleghe had sente thither to Inhabit the yeere before. Those gentlemen and others, as soone as they saw vs, thinkinge wee had bin a new supplie came from the shore and tarried certaine daies, and afterwards we broughte thense all those men with vs, except ii [two] who had gone further into the countrie and the winde grewe so that wee could not staie for them … [we put to sea on June 13th] … This cowntrie is Indifferent frewtfull and hathe good store of fisshe with land Turtles and nice Frewtes and saxafrage [sassafras] which are the best thinges in all the lande that wee know of…[June 18th, 1586 we sailed for home] (pp. 307-308).


Account by an anonymous Frenchman. Dated 1586? A French Account of Drake’s Voyage. pp. 309-311 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to Illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

[There are on the Cayman Islands] great serpents called cayamans, like large lizards, which are edible (p. 309).


Account by Thomas Hariot. Dated February, 1588. A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia: of the Commodities There Found and to be Raysed, as Well Marchantable, as Others for Victuall, Buyilding and Other Necessarie Vses for Those That Are and Shalbe the Planters There; and of the Nature and Manners of the Naturall Inhabitants: Discouered by the English Colony There Seated by Sir Richard Greinuile Knight in the Yeere 1585 Which Remained Vnder the Gouernment of Rafe Lane Esquier, One of Her Maiesties Equieres, During the Space of Twelue Monethes: at the Speciall Charge and Direction of the Honourable Sir Walter Raleigh Knight, Lord Warden of the Stanneries; Who Therein Hath Beene Fauoured and Authorised by Her Maiestie and Her Letters Patents: Directed to the Aduenturers, Fauourers, and Welwillers of the Action, for the Inhabiting and Planting There. By Thomas Hariot; Seruant to the Abouenamed Sir Walter, a Member of the Colony, and There Imployed in Discouering. London: [n.p.], 1588. pp. 317-387 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 104. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

Wapeih, a kinde of earth so called by the naturall inhabitants, very like to Terra Sigillata [NOTE: type of medicinal clay] and hauing beene refined, it hath beene found by some of our Phisitions and Chirurgeons to bee of the same kinde of vertue and more effectuall. The inhabitants vse it very much for the cure of sores and woundes: there is in diuers places great plentie, and in some places of a blewe sort (p. 328).

Sassafras, called by the inhabitants Winauk, a kinde of wood of most pleasant and sweete smel; and of most rare vertues in phisick for the cure of many diseases. It is found by experience to bee far better and of more vses then the wood which is called Guaiacum, or Lignum vitae [NOTE: Guaiacum from Santo Domingo was believed to have value in treating syphilis and other diseases] (p. 329).

Wine: There are two kinds of grapes that the soile doth yeeld naturally: the one is small and sowre of the ordinarie bigness as ours in England: the other farre greater and of himselfe lushious sweet [Vitis aestivalis; V. rotundiflora; V. labruska; V. cordifolia] When there are milles and other deuices for the purpose, a commodity of them may be raised because there are infinite store. There are also three seuerall kindes of Berries in the forme of Oke akornes, which also by the experience and vse of the inhabitantes, wee find to yeelde very good and sweete oyle. Furthermore the Beares of the countrey are commonly very fatte, and in some places there are many: their fatness because it is so liquid, may well be termed oyle, and hath many speciall vses (p. 330).

Deare Skinnes dressed after the maner of Chamoes or vndressed are to be had of the naturall inhabitants thousands yeerely by way of traffick for trifles: and no more wast or spoyle of Deare then is and hath beene ordinarily in time before (p. 331).

Sweet Gummes of diuers kinds, and many other Apothecary drugges, of which we will make speciall mention, when we shall receiue it from such men of skill in that kynd, that in taking reasonable paines shall discouer them more particularly then wee haue done (p. 334).

We caryed thither Suger canes to plant, which beeing not so well preserued as was requisit, and besides the time of the yere being past for their setting when we arriued, wee could not make that proofe of them as wee desired … So likewise for Orenges and Lemmons. There may be planted also Quinses. Whereby may grow in reasonable time if the action be diligently prosecuted, no small commodities in Sugers, Suckets, and Marmalades (p. 336).

The second part of suche commodities as Virginia is knowne to yeelde for victuall and sustenance of mans life, vsually fed vpon by the naturall inhabitants: as also by vs, during the time of our aboade. And first of such as are sowed and husbanded.

Pagatowr, a kinde of graine so called by the inhabitants; the same in the West Indies is called Mayze: English men call it Guinny wheate or Turkie wheate, according to the names of the countreys from whence the like hath beene brought. The graine is about the bignesse of our ordinary English peaze and not much different in forme and shape: but of diuers colours: some white, some red, some yellow, and some blew. All of them yeelde a very white and sweet flowre: being vsed according to his kinde it maketh a very good bread. Wee made of the same in the countrey some mault, whereof was bruwed as good Ale as was to bee desired. So likewise by the helpe of hops thereof may bee made as good Beere. It is a graine of marueillous great increase; of a thousand, fifteen hundred and some two thousand fold. There are three sortes, of which two are ripe in eleuen and twelue weekes at the most: sometimes in ten, after the time they are set, and are then of height in stalke about sixe or seuen foote. The other sort is ripe in foureteene, and is about ten foote high, of the stalkes some beare foure heads, some three, some one, and some two: euery head conteining fiue, sixe, or seuen hundred graines within a few more or lesse. Of these graines besides bread, the inhabitants make victuall, eyther by parching them, or seething them whole vntill they be broken; or boyling the floure with water into a pappe (pp. 337-339).

Okindgíer, called by vs Beanes, because in greatness and partly in shape they are like to the Beanes in England; sauing that they are flatter, of more diuers colours, and some pide [Phaseolus vulgaris]. The leafe also of the stemme is much different. In taste they are altogether as good as our English peaze (p. 339).

Wickonzówr, called by vs Peaze, in respect of the beanes, for distinction sake, because they are much lesse; although in forme they litle differ [Phaseolus nanus?; Apios tuberosa?]: but in goodness of taste much, and are far better then our English peaze. Both the beanes and peaze are ripe in tenne weekes after they are set. They make them victuall either by boyling them all to pieces into a broth, or boiling them whole vntill they bee soft and beginne to breake as is vsed in England, eyther by themselues, or mixtly together: Sometimes they mingle of the wheate with them. Sometime also beeing whole sodden, they bruse or pound them in a porter, and thereof make loaues or lumps of dowishe bread, which they vse to eat for varietie (p. 339)

Macócqwer, according to their seuerall formes, called by vs Pompions [Cucurbita pepo; Cucurbita maxima], Mellions [NOTE; not certain of the identification since melons were not present in Virgina at the time of contact but were introduced later], and Gourdes [Lagenaria siceraria], because they are of the like formes as those kinds in England. In Virginia such of seuerall formes are of one taste and very good, and do also spring from one seed. There are of two sortes; one is ripe in the space of a moneth, and the other in two moneths (p. 340).

There is an hearbe which in Dutch is called Melden. Some of those that I describe it vnto take it to be a kinde of Orage; it groweth about foure or fiue foote high: of the seede thereof they make a thicke broth, and pottage of a very good taste: of the stalke by burning into ashes they make a kinde of salt earth, wherewithall many vse sometimes to season their broths; other salte they knowe not [NOTE: most likely this is potash]. Wee our selues vsed the leaues also for pot-hearbes. There is also another great hearbe, in forme of a Marigolde, about sixe foot in height, the head with the floure is a spanne in breadth [sunflower: Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus – introduced to north America from Peru, through Mexico, into Florida and then up the coast?]. Some take it to be Planta Solis: of the seeds heereof they make both a kinde of bread and broth (pp. 340-341).

The ground they neuer fatten with mucke, dounge, or any other thing, neither plow nor digge it as we in England, but onely prepare it in sort as followeth. A few daies before they sowe or set, the men with wooden instruments, made almost in forme of mattockes or hoes with long handles; the women with short peckers or parers [NOTE: planting tools meant!], because they vse them sitting, of a foote long and about fiue inches in breadth: doe onely breake the vpper part of the ground to rayse vp the weedes, grasse, and olde stubbes of corne stalks with their rootes. The which after a day or twoes drying in the Sunne, being scrapte vp into many small heapes, to saue them labour for carrying them away; they burne into ashes … this is all the husbanding of their ground that they vse (p. 341-342).

Then their setting or sowing is after this maner. First for their corne, beginning in one corner of the plot, with a pecker they make a hole, wherein they put foure graines, with that care they touch not one another (about an inch asunder) and couer them with the moulde againe: and so through out the whole plot, making such holes and vsing them after such maner: but with this regard, that they bee made in rankes, euery ranke differing from other halfe a fadome or a yarde, and the holes also in euery ranke, as much;. By this meanes there is a yard spare ground betwene euery yhole: where according to discretion here and there, they set as many Beanes and Peaze; in diuers places also among the seedes of Macócqwer, Melden and Planta solis (p. 342).

For English corne [wheat] neuerthelesse whether to vse or not to vse it, you that inhabite maie doe as you shall haue farther cause to thinke best. Of the grouth you need not to doubt: for barlie, oates, and peaze, we haue seene proof of, not beeing purposely sowen but fallen casually in the worst sort of ground, and yet to be as faire as any we have euer seene here in England. But of wheat, because it was musty and had taken salt water we could make no triall: and of rye we had none (p. 344).

There is an herbe which is sowed apart by it selfe and is called by the inhabitants vppówoc: In the West Indies it hath diuers names, according to the seuerall places and countreys where it groweth and is vsed: The Spaniardes generally call it Tobacco [Nicotiana rustica]. The leaues thereof being dried and brought into pouder, they use to take the fume or smoke thereof by sucking it thorugh pipes made of claie, into their stomacke and heade; from whence it purgeth superfluous fleame and other grosse humors, openeth all the pores and passages of the body: by which meanes the vse thereof, not only preserueth the body from obstructons; but also if any be, so that they haue not beene of too long continuance, in short time breaketh them: whereby their bodies are notably preserued in health, and know not manyh greeuous diseases wherewithall wee in England are oftentimes afflicted [NOTE: the earliest English text specifically on tobacco was authored in 1595 by Anthony Chute and published in London by Adam Islip, and states ‘I think that there is nothing that harmes a man inwardly from his girdle vpward, but may be taken away with a moderate vse of Tabacco.’] (pp. 344-345).

This Vppówoc is of so precious estimation amongest them [the Indians], that they thinke their gods are maruelously delighted therwith … so a weare for fish being newly set vp, they case some therein and into the aire: also after an escape of danger, they cast some into the aire likewise … We our selues duirng the time we were there vsed to suck it after their maner, as also since our returne, and haue found manie rare and wonderfull experiments of the vertues thereof; of which the relation woulde require a volume by it selfe: the vse of it by so manie of late men and women of great calling as else and some learned Phisitions also, is sufficient witnes (pp. 345-346).

All else that followe, are founde growing naturally or wilde. Openauk are a kind of roots of round forme, some of the bignes of walnuts, some far greater, which are found in moist and marish grounds growing many together one by another in ropes, as though they were fastened with a string [Ground-nut, Indian potato, or marsh potato: Apios tuberosa or Glycine apios]. Being boiled or sodden they are very good meate (pp. 346-347).

Okeepenauk are also of round shape, found in dry grounds [man-of-the-earth wild potato vine: Ipomea pandurata]: some are of the bignes of a mans head. They are to be eaten as they are taken out of the ground, for by reason of their driness they will neither roste nor seeth. Their tast is not so good as of the former roots, notwityhstanding for want of bread and sometimes for varietie the inhabitants [Indians] vse to eate them with fish or flesh, and in my iudgement they doe as well as the household bread made of rie heare in England (pp. 347-348),

Kaishucpenauk a white kind of roots about the bignes of hen egs [Indian term means “easily-dug tubers”: this term could beapplied to common arrow-head or duck potato, Sagittaria latifolia or  S. cuneata] and neere of that forme: their tast was not so good to our seeming as of the other, and therefore their place and manner of growing not so much cared for by vs: the inhabitants nothwithstanding vsed to boile and eate many (p. 348).

Tsinaw [is] a kind of roote [Smilax pseudochina] much like vnto yet which in England is called the China root brought from the East Indies [Smilax china]. And we know not anie thing to the contrary but that it maie be of the same kinde. These roots grow lmanie together in great clusters and do bring foorth a brier stalke, but the leafe in shape farre vnlike: which beeing supported by the trees it groweth neerest vnto, will reach or climbe to the top of the highest. From these roots while they be new or fresh beeing chopt into small pieces and stampt, is strained with water a iuice that maketh bread, and also being boiled, a very good spoonemeate in maner of a gelly, and is much better in tast, if it bee tempered with oyle. This Tsinaw is not of that sort which by some was caused to be brought into England for the China roote, for it was discouered since, and is in vse as is afore said: but that which was brought hither is not yet knowne, neither by vs nor by the inhabitants to serue for any vse or purpose, although the rootes in shape are very like (pp. 348-349).

Coscúshaw, some of our company tooke to bee that kinde of root which the Spaniards in the West Indies call Cassauy [cassava: Manihot utilissima], whereupon also many called it by that name: it groweth in very muddie pooles and moist groundes [NOTE: the plant described here probably is not cassava but arrow-arum, Peltranda virginica or golden-club, Orontium aquaticum: both with strong peppery taste removed by drying and are not highly poisonous]. Being dressed according to the countrey maner, it maketh a good bread, and also a good spone meate, and is vsed very muuch by the inhabitants. The iuce of this root is poison, and therefore heede must be taken before any thing be made therewithall: Either the rootes must bee first sliced and dried in the Sunne, or by the fire, and then being pounded into floure wil make good bread: or els while they are greene they are to bee pared, cut into pieces, and stampt; loues of the same to be laid neere or ouer the fire vntill it be soure, and then being well pounded againe, bread, or spone meate very good in taste, and holesome may be made thereof (pp. 349-350).

Habascon is a root of hoat taste almost of the forme and bignesse of a Parseneepe, of it selfe it is no victuall, but onely a helpe beeing boiled together with other meates (p. 350).

There are also Leekes, differing little from ours in England that grow in many places of the countrey, of which, when we came in places where they were, wee gathered and ete many, but the naturall inhabitants neuer [possibly Allium tricoccum] (p. 350).

Chestnuts, there are in diuers places great store [called, locally, the chinquapin nut; Castanea ashei]: some they vse to eate rawe, some they stampe and boile to make spoonemeate, and with some being sodden they make such a manner of dowe bread as they vse of their beanes before mentioned (p. 350).

Walnuts: There are two kindes of Walnuts, and of them infinite store: In many places where are very great woods for many miles together the third part of trees are walnut-trees [in the sense described also includes hickories: smooth nut is probably the pig-nut hickory, Carya glabra; the dark, ragged-shelled sort possibly black walnut, Juglans nigra, possibly a shell-bark hickory, Carya ovata or Carya carolinae-septentrionalis]. The one kind is of the same taste and forme or litle differing from ours of England, but that they are harder and thicker shelled: the other is greater, and hath a verye ragged and harde shell: but the kernell great, verie oylie and sweete. Besides their eating of them after our ordinarie maner, they breake them with stones and pound them in morters with water to make a milk which they vse to put into some sorts of their spoonmeate; also among their sodde wheat, peaze, beanes and pompions which maketh them haue a farre more pleasant taste [these were the main source of vegetable fat for the coastal Indians] (p. 351).

Medlars [Persimmon or American date-plum, Diospyros virginiana] a kinde of verie good fruit, so called by vs chieflie for these respectes: first in that they are not good vntill they be rotten: then in that they open at the head as our medlars, and are about the same bigness: otherwise in taste and colour they are farre different: for they are as red as cheries and very sweet: but whereas the cherie is sharpe sweet, they are lushious sweet (p. 351).

Metaquesúnnauk [prickly pear, Opuntia spp.], a kind of pleasaunt fruite almost of the shape and bignesse of English peares, but that they are of a perfect red colour as well within as without. They grow on a plant whose leaues are verie thicke and full of prickles as sharpe as needles. Some that haue bin in the Indies, where they haue seen that kind of red die of great price, which is called Cochinile, to grow, doe describe [t]his plant right like vnto this of Metaquesúnnauk but whether it be the true cochinile or a bastard or wild kinde, it cannot yet be certified, seeing that also as I heard, Cochinile is not of the fruite but found on the leaues of the plant; which leaues for such matter we haue not so specially obserued [NOTE: cochinile is a parasitic insect, Dactylopius coccus, that infects the leaves of Opuntia cactus, and source of a valuable red dye (pp. 351-352).

Grapes there are of two sorts which I mentioned in the marchantable commodities. Straberies [Virginia strawberry: Fragaria virginiana and F. vesca] there are as good and as great as those which we haue in our English gardens. Mulberies [red mulberry: Morus rubra], Applecrabs [crab-apple: Pyrus angustifolia], Hurts or Hurtleberies [black huckleberry: Gaylussacia spp., squaw huckleberry: Polycodium spp., blueberry or cranberry: Vaccinium spp.], such as wee haue in England (pp. 352-353).

Sacquenúmmener [unidentified, possibly pepper-vine or Ampelopsis arborea or A. cordata; possibly arrow-arum or Virginia wake-robin or Peltranda virginica] a kinde of berries almost like vnto capres but somewhat greater which grow together in clusters vpon a plant or herbe that is found in shalow waters: being boiled eight or nine houres according to their kind, are very good meat and holesome, otherwise if they be eaten they will make a man for the time franticke or extremely sicke (p. 353).

There is a kinde of reed which beareth a seed almost like vnto our rie or wheat, and being boiled is good meate [wild rice: Zizania aquatica? alternatively, a salt-water marsh grase or cane] (p. 353).

In our trauailes in some places wee found wilde peaze like vnto ours in England but that they were lesse [possibly Lathyrus japonicus or L. maritimus], which are also good meate (p. 353).

There is a kind of berrie or acorne [may include nutes from oak, possibly hazel nut; live oak, Quercus virginianus; post oak or Quercus margaretta and Q. stellata; white oak or Quercus alba; basket oak or Quercus michauxii; swamp chestnut oak or Quercus prunus; willow oak or Quercus phellos; water oak or Quercus nigra: Indian names given do not help identify species of nuts described], of which there are fiue sorts that grow on seueral kinds of trees; the one is called Sagatémener, the second Osámener, the third Pummuckóner. These kind of acorns they vse to drie vpon hurdles made of reeds [type of rack or grill] with fire vnderneath almost after the maner as we dry malt in England. When they are to be vsed they first water them vntil they be soft and then being sod they make a good victual, either to eate so simply, or els being also pounded, to make loaves or lumpes of bread. These be also the three kinds of which, I said before, the inhabitants vsed to make sweet oyle. Another sort is called Saspúmmener, which being boiled or parched doth eate and taste like vnto chestnuts. They sometime also make bread of this sort. The fifth sort is called Mangúmmenauk, and is the acorne of their kinde of oake, the which beeing dried after the maner of the first sortes, and afterward watered they boile them, and their seruants or sometimes the chiefe themselues, either for variety or for want of bread, doe eate them with their fish or flesh (pp. 354-355).

Deare [Virginia white-tailed deer: Odocoileus virginianus] in some places there are great store: neere unto the Sea coast they are of the ordinarie bignes as ours in England, and some lesse: but further vp into the countrey where there is better feed they are greater [might these be elk?]: they differ from ours onely in this, their tailes are longer and the snags of their hornes looke backward (p. 355).

Conies, Those that we haue seen and al that we can heare of are of a greay colour like vnto hares [marsh rabbit: Sylvilagus palustris and common cottontail: Sylvilagus floridanus]: in some places there are such plentie that all the people of some townes make them mantles of the furre or flue of the skinnes of those they vsually take (p. 355).

Saquénuckot and Maquówoc; two kinds of small beastes greater then conies which are very good meat. We neuer took any of them our selues but sometime eate of such as the inhabitants had taken and brought vnto vs [uncertain identifications: possibly, muskrat or Ondatra zibethica; mink or Mustela vison; common raccoon or Procyon lotor; beaver or Castor canadensis; common opossum or Didelphys virginianus] (pp. 355-356).

Squirels, which are of a grey colour [probably grey squirrel: Sciurus caroliensis; fox squirel or Scirus niger; and common flying squirrel or Glaucomys volans], we haue taken and eaten. Beares [black bear: Ursus americanus] which are all of blacke colour. The beares of this countrey are good meat; the inhabitants in time of winter do vse to take and eate manie, so also sometime did wee. They are taken commonlie in this sort. In some Ilands or places where they are, being hunted for, as soone as they haue spiall [not certain of this word: seen? smelled?] of a man they presently run awaie, and then being chased they clime and get vp the next tree they can, from whence with arrowes they are shot downe starke dead, or with those wounds that they may after easily be killed; we sometime shotte them downe with our calleuers [type of small firearm] (p. 356).

I haue the names of eight and twenty seuerall sortes of beasts which I haue heard of to be here and there dispersed in the countrie, especially in the maine: of which there are only twelue kinds that we haue yet discouered [list is lost: based upon archaeology could include grey wolf, Canis lupus lycaon; coyote, Canis latrans; puma, Felis concolor cougar; red fox, Vulpes fulvus]. The inhabitants sometime kill the Lyon [American panther, cougar, or puma: Felis concolor cougar, now extinct in Virginia], and eat him: and we sometime as they came to our hands of their Wolues or woulish Dogges [dog-eating by English settlers!], which I haue not set downe for good meat, least that some would vnderstand my iudgement therein to be more simple than needeth, although I could alleage the difference in taste of those kindes from ours, which by some of our company haue been experimented in both [reference to: English bull-mastiffs, eaten by Lane’s men on the Roanoke River expedition] (pp. 356-357).

Turkie cockes and Turkie hennes [Meleagris galloparvo]: Stockdoues [eastern mourning dove: Zenaidura macrona carolinensis]: Partridges: Cranes [sandhill crane: Megalornis mexicana]: Hernes [Louisiana heron: Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis; little blue heron: Florida caerulea caerulea; eastern green heron: Butorides virescens virescens; black-crowned night heron: Nycticorax hoactli; yellow-crowned night heron: Nyctanassa violacea violacea]: and in Winter great store of Swannes [trumpeter swan?, whistling swan: Cygnus columbianus] and Geese [Canada goose: Branta canadensis canadensis; American brant: Branta bernicla hrota; greater snow goose: Chen hyperborea atlantica]. Of al sorts of fowle I haue the names in the countrie language of fourescore and sixe [list lost] of which number besides those that be named, we haue taken, eaten, and haue the pictures as they were there drawne with the names of the inhabitaunts of seuerall strange sorts of water foule eight, and seuenteen kinds more of land foul, although wee haue seene and eaten of many more, which for want of leasure there for the purpose coulde not bee pictured (pp. 358-359).

For foure monethes of the yeere, February, March, Aprill and May, there are plentie of Sturgeons. And also in the same monethes of Herrings [river herring or hickory shad: Pomolobus mediocris; branch herring, glut herring or Pomolobus aestivalis; shad or Alosa sapidissima], some of the ordinary bignesse as ours in England, but the most part farre greater … both these kindes of fishe in those monethes are most plentifull, and in best season, which wee found to bee most delicate and pleasaunt meate (p. 359).

There are also Troutes [brook trout or Salvelinus fontinalis]: Porpoises [bottle-nosed dolphin or Tursiops truncatus]: Rayes: Oldwiues [sheepshead bream]: Mullets [striped or grey mullet]: Plaice [flounder or soles, among them summer flounder or plaice: Paralichthys dentatus; southern flounder; winter flounder or common flat-fish or Pseudopleuronoctes americanus]: and very many other sortes of excellent good fish, which we haue taken and eaten, whose names I know not but in the countrey language … The inhabitants use to take them two manner of wayes, the one is by a kinde of wear made of reedes which in that countrey are very strong. The other way, which is more strange, is with poles made sharpe at one ende, by shooting them into the fish after the maner of Irishmen cast dartes; either as they are rowing in their boats or els as they are wading in the shallowes for the purpose (p. 360).

There are also in many places plentie of these kindes which follow. Sea crabbes, such as we haue in England [king crab]. Oysters, some very great, and some small; some rounde and some of a long shape: They are founde both in salt water and brackish, and those that we had out of salt water are far better than the other, as in our owne countrey [oysters: Ostrea virginica]. Also Muscles [fresh-water mussel: Unio complanatus; sea mussel or Mytilus edulis]: Scalopes: Periwinkles [Littorina littoralis]: and Creuises [fresh-water crayfish: Astacus fluviatilis, possibly lobster as well in the identification]. Seéanauk, a kinde of crustie shel fishe [king-crab: Limulus polyphemus] which is good meate about a foote in breadth, hauing a crustie tayle, many legges like a crab; and her eyes in her backe. They are found in shallowes of salt waterers, and sometime on the shoare (pp. 361-362).

There are many Tortoyses both of lande and sea kinde [Various land types in Virginia include: snapping turtle or Chelydra serpentina; mud turtle or Kinosternon subrubrum; musk turtle or Sternotherus odoratus; box turtle or Terrapene carolina carolina; painted terrapin or Chrysemys picta; chicken turtle or Dierochelys reticularia; Florida terrapin or Pseudemys concinna; yellow-bellied terrapin or Pseudemys scripta; diamond-backed terrapin or Malaclemys terrapin. Various marine types in Virginia include: leather-back turtle or Dermochelys coricea; Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle or Caretta caretta caretta; Kemp’s loggerhead or Caretta kempi; green sea turtle or Chelonia mydas], their backes and bellies are shelled very thicke; their head, feete, and taile, which are in appearance, seeme ougly as though they were members of a serpent or venemous [type of animal]: but notwithstanding they are very good meate, as also their egges (p. 362).

[Description of drought among the Wiroans in the Wingina Indian settlement] On a time also when their corne began to wither by reason of a drought which happened extraordinarily, fearing that it had come to passe by reason that in some thing they had displeased vs, many [Indians] would come to vs and desire vs to pray to our God of England, that he would preserue their corne, promising that when it was ripe we also should be partakers of the fruite [NOTE: this event took place during the summer of 1586] (p. 377).

[Accidental spread of European-related diseases] There was no towne where wee had any subtile deuise practised against vs, we leauing it vnpunished or not reuenged because we sought by all meanes possible to win them by gentlenesse but that within a few dayes after our departure from euerie such towne, the people began to die very fast, and many in short space; in some townes about twentie, in some fourtie, in some sixtie, and in one sixe score, which in trueth was very manie in respect of their numbers [NOTE: the disease was most likely to have been the common cold; malaria might have been brought to Virginia by Lane’s men, but there is no clear evidence that malaria was given to the Indians; lethal effects of measles or colds would be quite inexplicable to the English, since they would likely have recognized smallpox or malaria and would have named these as the cause]. This happened in no place that wee coulde learne but where we had bene where they vsed some practise against vs, and after such time; The disease also was so strange, that they neither knew what it was, nor how to cure it; the oike by report of the oldest men in the countrey neuer happened before, time out of minde …  Some people [Indians] could not tel whether to thinke vs gods or men, and the rather because that all the space of their sicknesse, there was no man of ours knowne to die, or that was specially sicke: they noted also that we had no women amongst vs, neither that we did care for any of theirs (pp. 378-379).

Some [Indians] therefore were of [the] opinion that wee were not borne of women, and therefore not mortall … Some [Indians] woulde likewise seeme to prophesie that there were more of our generation yet to come, to kill theirs and take their places, as some thought the purpose was by that which was already done. Those that were immediately to come after vs they imagined to be in the aire, yet inuisible and without bodies, and that they by our intreaty and for the loue of vs did make the people to die in that sort as they did by shooting inuisible bullets into them (p. 380).

To confirme this opinion, their phisitions to excuse their ignorance in curing the disease, would not be ashamed to say, but earnestly make the simple people beleeue, that the strings of blood that they sucked out of the sicke bodies, were the strings wherewithall the inuisible bullets were tied and cast. Some also thought that we shot them our selues out of our pieces from the place where we dwelt, and killed the people in any such towne that had offended vs as we listed, howe farre distant from vs soeuer it were. And other some saide that it was the speciall woorke of God for our sakes, as wee our selues haue cause in some sorte to thinke no lesse [since we forcasted an eclipse of the sun on April 19th, 1585] … also … a Comet which beganne to appeare but a fewe daies before the beginning of the said sicknesse (pp. 380-381).

[Since the Spanish explored the interior of Florida after landing] Why may wee not then looke for in good hope from the inner parts of more and greater plentie, as well of other things, as of those which wee haue already discouered? … The maine … of this countrey of Virginia, extending some wayes so many hundreds of leagues, as otherwise then by the relation of the inhabitants wee haue most certaine knowledge of, where yet no Christian Prince hath any possession or dealing, cannot but yeeld many kinds of excellent commodities, which we in our discouerie haue not yet seene … Whereby also the excellent temperature of the ayre there [in Virginia] at all seasons, much warmer then in England, and neuer so violently hot, as sometimes is vnder and between the Tropikes, or nere them … For the holsomness [of Virginia] I neede to say but thus much: that for all the want of prouision, as first of English victuall, exdception for twentie daies, wee liued onely by drinking water and by the victuall of the countrey, of which some sorts were very straunge vnto vs, and might haue bene thought to haue altered our temperatures in such sort, as to have brought vs into some greeuous and dangerous diseases: Secondly the want of English meanes for the taking of beastes, fishe, and foule, which by the helpe only of the inhabitants and their meanes, could not bee so suddenly and easily prouided for vs, nor in so great number and quantities, nor of that choise as otherwise might haue bene to our better satisfaction and contentment. Some want also wee had of clothes. Furthermore, in all our trauailes, which were most speciall and often in the time of winter, our lodging was in the open aire vpon the grounde. And yet I say for all this, there were but foure of our whole company (being one hundreth and eight) that died all the yeere and that but at the latter ende thereof and vpon none of the aforesaide causes. For all foure especially three were feeble, weake, and sickly persons before euer they came thither [to Virginia], and those that knew them much marueyled that they liued so long beeing in that case, or had aduentured to trauaile [NOTE: if true, it would be unlikely that the settlers brought with them malaria or other fever either from England or form the West Indies; what then caused the extensive deaths of the Indians?]. Seeing therefore the ayre there is so temperate and holsome, the soyle so fertile, and yeelding such commodities as I haue before mentioned, the voyage also thither to and fro being sufficiently experimented, to bee perfourmed thrice a yeere with ease and at any season thereof: … [then the land should be settled by many] (pp. 383-385).

If that those which shall thither [to Virginia] trauaile to inhabite and plant bee but reasonably prouided for the first yere, as those are which were transported the last [time], and beeing there doe vse but that diligence and care as is requisit, and as they may with ease: There is no doubt but for the time followng they may haue victuals that [are] excellent good and plentie enough; some more Englishe sortes of cattaile also hereafter, as some haue bene before, and are there yet remayning, may and shall bee God willing thither transported: So likewise our kinde of fruites, rootes, and hearbes, may bee there planted and sowed, as some haue bene alreadie, and proue wel: And in short time also they may raise of those sortes of commodities which haue spoken of as shall both enrich them selues, as also others that shall deale with them (pp. 385-386).


Account by John White. Dated 1587. The Fourth Voyage Made to Virginia, With Three Shippes, in the Yeere, 1587. Wherein was Transported the Second Colonie. pp. 515-538 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 2. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 105. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

Our Fleete being in number three saile … departed the sixe and twentieth of Aprill [1587] from Portesmouth … [June 19th] we fell with Dominica, and the same euening we sailed betweene it, and Guadalupe (pp. 516-517).

[July 6th] wee came to the Island Caycos [to obtain salt: some of the crew went] to seeke the salt ponds, some fowling, some hunting Swannes, whereof we caught many. The next daye, earely in the morning we waied anker, leauing Caycos, with good hope, [that] the first lande that wee sawe next, should be Virginia. About the 16[th] of Iuly, we fell with the maine of Virginia … the Island of Croatoan, where we came to an anker, and rode there two or three daies … The two and twentieth of Iulie, we arriued safe at Hatoraske … intending to passe vp to Roanoake forthwith … [we] passed to Roanoake, and the same night, at Sunne set went aland on the Island (pp. 522-524).

The 23[rd] of Iuly … [we] walked to the North ende of the Island, where Master Ralfe Lane had his forte, with sundry necessarie and decent dwelling houses, made by his men about it the yeere before … When we came thither, wee found the forte rased downe, but all the houses standing vnhurt, sauing the neather roomes of them, and also of the forte, were ouergrowen with Melons of diuers sortes [pumpkins and gourds gone wild from the settlers’ and Indians’ gardens], and Deere within them, feeding on those Mellons: so we returned to our companie, without hope of euer seeing any of the fifteen men luing (p. 524).

The eight and twentieth, George Howe, one of our twelue Assistantes was slaine by diuers Sauages, which were come ouer to Roanoake, either of purpose to espie our companie, and what number we were, or els to hunt Deere, whereof were many in the Island. These Sauages beeing secretly hidden among high reedes, where oftentimes they finde the Deere asleepe, and so kill them, espied our man wading in the water alone, almost naked, without any weapon, saue onely a smal forked sticke, catching Crabs therewithall, and also being strayed two miles from his companie, shotte at him in the water (pp. 525-526).

[August 9th] in the morning so earely, that it was yet darke, wee landed neere the dwelling place of our enemies, and very secretly conueyed our selues through the woods … [hauing espied their fire, and some sitting about it, we presently sette on them: the miserable soules … fledde … where our men perceauing them, shotte one of them through the bodie with a bullet, and therewith wee entred the reedes, among which wee hoped to acquite their euill doing towards vs, but wee were deceaued, for those Sauages were our friendes, and were come from Croatoan, to gther the corne, and fruite of that place, because they vnderstoode our enemies were fledde immediately after they had slaine George Howe, and for haste had left all their corne, Tabacco, and Pompions standing in such sorte, that all had been deuoured of the birdes, and Deere … [but it] was so darke, that they beeing naked, and their men and women apparelled all so like others, we knewe not but that they were all men … Finding our selues thus disppointed of our purpose, wee gathered all the corne, Pease, Pumpions, and Tabacco, that we found ripe, leauing the rest vnspoiled (pp. 530-531).

The 18[th of August] Elenora, daughter to the Gouernour, and wife to Ananias Dare, one of the Assistants, was deliuered of a daughter in Roanoak, and the same was christened there the Sunday following [24th of August], and because this childe was the first Christian borne in Virginia, she was named Virginia [Dare] (pp. 531-532).


Account by Nicholas Burgoigon. Dated 1586. The relation of Nicholas Burgoignon, aliâs Holy, whom sir Francis Drake brought from Saint Augustine also in Florida, where he had remayned sixe yeeres, in mine and Master Heriots hearing. pp. 763-766 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 2. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 105. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

A Tunne of the sassafras of Florida is solde in Spaine for sixtie ducates: and that they haue there [in Florida] great store of Turkie cocks, of Beanes, of Peasons, and that there are great store of pearles … The Spaniards entering 50 leagues vp [the river of] Saint Helena [Broad river] found Indians wearing golde rings at their nostrels and eares. They found also Oxen, but lesse [big] then ours [where did these come from?] (pp. 764-765).


Account by  Vicente González. Dated August 12th 1588. The Relation which Captain Vizente González gave of what he observed on the voyage which he made, under orders from Pedro Menéndez Marqués, governor of Florida, in two pinnaces with fifty men to reconnoitre the fort which it was understood the French [sic. English is meant] had made on the Santa Elena coast, with a succinct discourse at the end on the fortification of the said coast and the forts which his majesty holds there. pp. 822-825 (in) The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590. Documents to illustrate the English Voyages to North America Under the Patent Granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. Edited by D.B. Quinn. Vol. 2. The Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 105. London. The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

In this land [Virginia] they have much maize and beans for food, which are the principal articles in their diet. They have also plenty of cherries, plums, grapes, dried chestnuts, which last all the year round. They have, too, apples, medlars, walnuts, much hunting of all kinds just as in Spain, while the climate of that land is also similar (p. 824).